After several months spent mostly locally in the Karst, it was finally time for something more "exotic". The Alps offer an excellent array of wildlife and spring is certainly the best time to get the most of it. Later in summer, it's still good to visit the Alps, especially the highest peaks, although birds tend to be more difficult to observe, while the greatest entertainment is represented by the alpine flora and butterflies. In May and early June birds put on a great show and are somehow easier to observe. The mountains are also very quiet at this time of year, as the hiking season hasn't opened yet and most of the mountain huts are still closed. In spring we only visit the Alps sporadically, so this year we decided to go looking for some birds we don't see very often. This two-day trip represented a very welcome diversion from our usual field trips in the Karst. Our main target was to visit the courtship lek of Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix, a relatively widespread bird in the Alps, although a seldom seen one. The easiest time to see this bird is certainly spring, when small groups of males gather at leks (courtship arenas), where they sing, display and fight over females. One of the best areas for Black Grouse are the Julian Alps within the Triglav National Park and that's exactly where we headed. As the visit to a lek is a dawn-type of thing, we needed to be up in the mountains already the evening before. Therefore we left the car in the afternoon, hiked to a mountain hut where we spent the night and then woke up well before dawn for an additional 1,30 hour hike to the Black Grouse lekking area.
Cold coffee prepared the day before and left to settle through the night.
Night hike to grouse heaven.
Waking up at 3.30 am was well worth it! As we started our ascent from about 1400 m a.s.l., towards the lekking arena at around 1600 m, we first walked through the alpine spruce forest, where the first birds of the day began to sing. We expected to hear first a Song Thrush Turdus philomelos or a Robin Erithacus rubecula, but instead the first to open the dawn chorus were two Pygmy OwlsGlaucidium passerinum (video below) and an unlikely Cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Almost at the same time we heard a distant, but characteristic "clicking" - we couldn't believe our ears: it was a singing CAPERCAILLIETetrao urogallus!! Although the sound was faint, apparently the bird was not very far away, as we could also hear the "hissing" in between the clicking notes. Given the early time (it was still dark) the bird must have been singing from a tree. We listened to this magical sound for a couple of minutes, before moving on.
Pygmy OwlGlaucidium passerinum - two singing birds.
The time when Capercaillies sing.
Later on the way a third Pygmy Owl joined the chorus, while other birds like Song Thrush, Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros and Robin began to sing. About half an hour before sunrise addtional early birds started to sing, including a Tengmalm's OwlAegolius funereus and Ring OuzelsTurdus torquatus, while an Alpine ChamoisRupicapra rupicapra crossed our path. As we were approaching the Black Grouse lek area, we began to hear their distinctive bubbling songs. The forest opened and
we found ourselves in a beautiful stand of larches Larix decidua with heath Erica carnea in the
undergrowth. And finally we arrived to the lek, on the edge of a mountain pasture. We soon located the first displaying male BLACK GROUSELyrurus tetrix, then the second, the third... and so on. We sat quietly, hidden behind a rock at safety distance (about 50 metres away from them) and enjoyed the spectacle for the next couple of hours. More males joined the lek later, flying in from various directions and at the end we counted 11 birds. To get the proper feeling about the experience, make sure you watch the video below!
Sunrise at the Black Grouse lek.
Black GrouseLyrurus tetrix- watch the video in HD and turn on the volume!
The sound is original - produced by the displaying grouses.
Early morning views of the surrounding mountains.
As the sun rose higher, between 7.30 and 8.00 the courtship display began to fade. The Black Grouse males lowered and folded their tails and then one by one began to abandon the lek, by flying off quite noisily. The great show was over, but for us there was plenty of other wildlife to enjoy in the alpine pasture and on the way back to our base. A quite interesting bird of the larch stands is the relatively scarce and often difficult to observe Lesser RedpollCarduelis flammea ssp. cabaret. We were glad to find a cooperative pair that showed very well in the larches.
Lesser RedpollCarduelis flammea ssp. cabaret
Typical Lesser Redpoll habitat.
Also around were many CrossbillsLoxia curvirostra and several Ring OuzelsTurdus torquatus, plus a NutcrackerNucifraga caryocatactes as well as the usual mountain mix of common birds including DunnockPrunella modularis, BullfinchPyrrhula pyrrhula, Willow TitPoecile montanus, Lesser WhitethroatSylvia curruca and others. A Grey-headed Woodpecker Picus canus was also heard, while later we were surprised by an immature Golden EagleAquila chrysaetos gliding very low above our heads, while a MarmotMarmota marmota whistled at its passage (a typical alpine scene!). The tail end of bird migration was still visible in the sky with the occasional migrating Bee-eaterMerops apiaster, flying over the mountains. In the several drinking pools around the pastures we observed good numbers of Alpine Newts Ichthyosaura alpestris and even caught a nice male to take a closer look.
Alpine NewtIchthyosaura alpestris (male)
Although the best time to enjoy the alpine flora is later in the season, many of the early flowers were already in fine bloom. Spring HeathErica carnea was awesome as were OxlipsPrimula elatior, Alpine PasqueflowersPulsatilla alpina and Spring GentiansGentiana verna, while the limestone rocks were dotted by Bear's EarsPrimula auricula, Trumpet GentiansGentiana clusii and small shrubs of Dwarf AlpenroseRhodothamnus chamaecistus. Lower down in the mixed mountain forests plants like Alpine ClematisClematis alpina and Three-leaved AnemoneAnemone trifolia were also in fine bloom. All in all an excellent mixture of alpine plants to enrich this super-productive trip!
Spring HeathErica carnea
Alpine PasqueflowerPulsatilla alpina
Alpine SnowbellSoldanella alpina
Spring GentianGentiana verna
Pyramidal BugleAjuga pyramidalis
Dwarf AlpenroseRhodothamnus chamaecistus
Trumpet GentianGentiana clusii
Bear's EarPrimula auricula
Alpine ClematisClematis alpina
Three-leaved AnemoneAnemone trifolia
Anthill (Wood Ant Formica rufa).
Views on the surrounding mountains, with Triglav in the lower pic.
One of the many alpine pastures (at around 1600 m a.s.l.).
Red-footed FalconFalco vespertinus (male) - part of a flock of 6.
Red-rumped SwallowCecropis daurica over the garden (above) & an active nest near Divača (below).
Golden OrioleOriolus oriolus - always difficult to get proper pics of.
Common RedstartPhoenicurus phoenicurus in the garden.
Black WoodpeckerDryocopus martius - two pairs with chicks in the local patch.
CuckooCuculus canorus - the quintessential sound of spring in the forest.
Great Spotted WoodpeckerDendrocopos major - nesting in the woodland behind the house.
Beech Longhorn BeetleMorimus funereus
Dalmatian AlgyroidesAlgyroides nigropunctatus
BadgerMeles meles (camera-trapped) by its sett in the woodland behind our house.
Field CricketGryllus campestris stridulating night & day in the garden.
Marsh FritillaryEuphydryas aurinia
Forester MothAdscita sp.
Queen of Spain FritillaryIssoria lathonia in the garden.
Large Wall BrownLasiommata maera
Violet Carpenter BeeXylocopa violacea - up to 3 using our home-made
bee nest-boxes in the garden.
Wild PeonyPaeonia mascula - rare, in shady broadleaved woodlands.
Common PeonyPaeonia officinalis - common in open woodlands & scrubland.
Grass-leaved IrisIris graminea
Burnt-tip OrchidNeotinea ustulata
Military OrchidOrchis militaris
Orchid mix - on 1,2 ha of meadow we counted 502 Military and 158 Burnt-tip Orchids.
Three-toothedNeotinea tridentata x Military OrchidOrchis militaris (hybrid).
Violet LimodoreLimodorum abortivum
Narrow-leaved HelleborineCephalanthera longifolia
White HelleborineCephalanthera damasonium
Orchard with sheep.
Cherries are just ripening in the garden.
A more concise photo-post today, because of the lack of time - with all the fieldwork it's increasingly difficult to spend time on the PC. Above are some of the pics taken recently in our garden and the local patch area, in the Karst around Sežana (up to 10 km away from home). Among the most interesting sights in the garden were 4 Red-rumped SwallowsCecropis daurica, while a pair of this very rare breeder took up residence under a bridge near Divača. At least two Common RedstartsPhoenicurus phoenicurus are holding territory around our house. The karstic hay meadows now usually host small flocks of stop-over Red-footed FalconsFalco vespertinus. Two pairs of Black WoodpeckerDryocopus martius have nestlings and the activity around the nest-holes is very intense. Also quite a lot of butterflies, insects and interesting plants to keep us occupied. Hopefully more in the next blog post. Keep tuned!